Social Structure in South Indian Elephants

Guest post by Nandini Shetty

A group of elephants visit the grasslands surrounding the Kabini Reservoir in Southern India. Photo: Kabini Elephant Project

India includes some of the largest populations of Asian elephants in the world: an estimated ~26 000 to 28 000 elephants distributed across four regions. Of the four regions, southern India includes the single largest population of Asian elephants in the world (~14 000) and elephants are distributed across the Western and Eastern Ghats.

I studied the ecology and behaviour of Asian elephants as part of an ongoing long-term project on elephants, the Kabini Elephant Project, which was started in March 2009 to study the social life of elephants. I worked in Nagarahole and Bandipur National Parks in Karnataka, southern India. Both National Parks are separated by the River Kabini and a dam was constructed across the river in the 1970s. When the dam is opened, receding waters expose the wet ground which supports the growth of fresh grass. As ponds dry up inside the forests in summer, many herds of elephants visit and aggregate along the backwaters area.

Male elephants disperse away from their natal groups when they reach adolescence, sometimes forming temporary associations with other males. Female elephant groups are dynamic, most likely including maternal relatives: mothers, daughters, aunts, cousins, nieces and so on. The group composition and size keeps changing with time. On some occasions, large groups undergo fission and form small groups, while on other occasions, small groups join other groups and form large groups. These “fission – fusion” events are thought to be in response to competition for food. It was found in other species that when food resources are limited or scarce, groups undergo fission and when food resources are plentiful, groups fuse. African savannah elephants show a hierarchical, “multi-tiered” fission – fusion society, where the largest grouping is called a clan. A clan contains family groups and bond groups and is a community that is defined on the basis that females associate more with others within their own community than those outside it. Earlier studies on Asian elephants of Uda Walawe, Sri Lanka by UWERP show a multi-level society, but not exactly equivalent to family groups or bond groups of African savannah elephants (Moss and Poole 1983, Wittemeyer et al. 2005, de Silva et al. 2011, de Silva and Wittemyer 2012).

Asian elephants in Southern India also exhibit fission-fusion social dynamics. Photos: Kabini Elephant Project

At the level of different clans, there was no consistent effect of season on group size or associations. A reason could be that there is a constraint on group size in this population (which is why larger and smaller clans have similar average group sizes). How food resources are spaced in the forest may not be very different across seasons (but this is something that remains to be studied). We found that females maintained their associates across seasons and also associated with them to roughly the same extent across years (Nandini et al. 2017).

We also compared the Kabini population (using similar data collection methods) with the Samburu African savannah elephant population and the Uda Walawe Asian elephant population with data kindly provided by the authors of those studies. Of the three populations, the African savannah elephant was the most cohesive, with strong associations between females, followed by the Kabini, and then the Uda Walawe populations. However, the group sizes in the three populations were also different: ~5 females in Samburu per group on average, compared to ~3 in Kabini and Uda Walawe. We were able to show that there are basic underlying similarities amongst the three populations in female social structure, but the differences in group sizes prevent these similarities from being easily seen. Larger groups formed by the African elephants allow females to associate with many females, thus making them more cohesive, compared to the Kabini elephants (Nandini et al. 2018).

We think that differences in group sizes across species may result from differences in their ecology. Savannah ecosystems offer large amounts of grass biomass, supporting large groups, as opposed to the tropical forests that Asian elephants inhabit, in which food resources are patchy and limited. African elephants also face predation risk from lions and poaching pressure from humans, which may have made them more gregarious and cohesive. Among Asian elephant populations, Kabini was more cohesive than Uda Walawe. This possibly stemmed from the large scale historic disturbance that Sri Lanka went through, which resulted in killing of thousands of elephants in the 19th century. Such disturbance is likely to have affected the associations among female elephants in Sri Lanka. But more studies on other populations are required to test this idea.



  • Moss CJ, Poole JH. 1983. Relationships and social structure in African elephants. In: Hinde RA, editor. Primate social relationships: an integrated approach. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 315–325.
  • Wittemyer G, Douglas-Hamilton I, Getz WM. 2005. The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multitiered social structures. Animal Behaviour 69: 1357–1371.
  • de Silva S, Ranjeewa AD, Kryazhimskiy S. 2011. The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants. BMC Ecology 11:17.
  • de Silva S, Wittemyer G. 2012. A comparison of social organization in Asian elephants and African savannah elephants. International Journal of Primatology 33:1125–1141.
  • Nandini S, Keerthipriya P, Vidya TNC. 2017. Seasonal variation in female Asian elephant social structure in Nagarahole-Bandipur, southern India. Animal Behaviour 134: 135-145.
  • Nandini S, Keerthipriya P, Vidya TNC. 2018. Group size differences may mask underlying similarities in social structure: a comparison of female elephant societies. Behavioural Ecology 29: 145-159.

Elephant Gardens

Guest post by Jessie Panazzolo

A camera trap photo shows Sumatran elephants trekking through lush regenerating forest.

I had always been told the same thing over and over again from my schooling, the scientific papers I read, and people I met growing up. This was that once primary rainforest was gone and removed from the Earth, it could not grow again. I was told that the forest needed a constant cycling of nutrients to flourish. That without the trees blanketing the ground in leaf litter the soil would be devoid of any nutrients needed to create such rich life again.

I had also been told that important forest dwellers such as the Sumatran Orangutan would only find a home in thick established forests. I had read in many different papers that Sumatran Orangutans, unlike their Bornean cousins, never spent any time walking on the forest floor in fear of the predatory Sumatran Tiger.

Considering all this, you could imagine my surprise and awe when I found myself in the middle of a brand new Sumatran rainforest, barely five years old, seeing orangutans walk the ground in front of my very eyes. It was then that I knew that anything was possible. Continue reading

News that caught our attention

Before we start, a disclaimer: there’s a lot of bad news out there. We’re not going to amplify it by reposting here. But we thought it would be nice to highlight interesting news every now and then. Things that give us hope (#ElephantOptimism) and/or make us think.

Here are a couple.

  1.  To bee (hive-fence) or not to bee (hive-fence)

Image: Bangkok Post

We recently published the results of a study done back in 2014 with Dr. Lucy King of the Elephants and Bees Project showing that Asian elephants are not very keen on bees (read the blog post here).  But of course, plenty of people had heard about the earlier studies with African elephants and had already jumped to the final step – beehive fences as a means of deterring crop raiding. Continue reading

The Secret Life of Elephants

We have the pleasure of watching elephants in broad daylight in precious few places like Udawalawe, where they are habituated enough to be placid and tolerant of onlookers. Indeed, one can get rather spoiled in this particular Park, because even the birds are unafraid and will happily sit and pose for your clumsy photograph from inches away. At times, certain exhibitionist pachyderms even appear to put on a show for the gawking crowds:

But all is not paradise. Continue reading

The Buzz about Elephants and Bees

An elephant family rests under a tree in the hot midday heat. Situations like this were perfect for the playback experiments.

by SdS

In October 2007 Lucy King and colleagues first made a splash by reporting that African elephants seemed to be rather put off by bees.  I was still in Sri Lanka during my big “data collection year” as a graduate student, trying to figure out the social relationships among Asian elephants and recording vocalizations whenever I got a chance. Lucy’s first paper was a curiosity, but then three years later she followed it up with the even more intriguing finding that African elephants even produce alarm calls specific to bees. This got the attention of my advisor at Penn, Dorothy Cheney, who having expended considerable time thinking about such things as monkey alarm calls, dropped me a one-liner: “Have you seen this?” Continue reading

Sumedha’s Epic Musth

Sumedha shows all signs of musth as he consorts with Indika (Sandamali) in 2011, which include secretions from the temporal glands on the sides of his head and urine dribbling.

Of all the iconic tuskers that have passed through Udawalawe over the years, Sumedha is the one I’ve known longest. All tuskers are distinctive, because they’re so rare in Udawalawe, but Sumedha additionally had a nice big hole in his left ear and an awkward  tail with no hair. He wasn’t as regal as my beloved Raja, nor as old and wise as the Kalthota tusker, both of whom would have been easily dominant over him in the early years. But he was younger than either of them, and built like a tank. So if he survived, eventually his time would come. Continue reading

Fencing the conflict

by DJ and USW

A female elephant was seen on the corridor - note the gut shot wounds

A female elephant was seen on the corridor – note the raised bumps on the skin, which are suspected to be old gunshot wounds.

Uda Walawe elephants have access to nearby protected areas (managed by the Department of Wildlife Conservation) through two separate “corridors;” Dahayyagala, connecting the park to the proposed Bogahapattiya Sanctuary on the northern boundary and Wetahirakanda, connecting it to Lunugamwehera National Park on the eastern border. Elephants can be found outside the park pretty much all along the border except for the southern section. The identified corridors, however, are too narrow at some places (500-1000m). Corridor boundary is marked by electric fencing. The existing fences sometimes run too close to human settlements and at other times they run through forested habitats leaving elephant needs (like water holes) outside the corridor. In such cases, those who maintain electric fences have to walk into elephant habitats for a few kilometres daily and that doesn’t sound practical (as a result, some parts of the fence easily go non-functional).  Given the inefficiency of fenced boundaries and escalating human elephant conflict in the area, the Department has taken a very timely decision to re-define corridors and upgrading electric fences to better serve both humans and elephants. The plan is that eventually the corridors will be broadened while the existing fences will be lengthened and strengthened. Continue reading